The structure of nails nail service

Структура ногтей в ногтевом сервисе

Structure and features of the nail to nail masters – it is the alphabet initial stage of the formation of a professional. This knowledge is necessary to provide high quality service, as well as for treatment and recovery of nails.

Nails is not only a plate protecting the tips of his fingers intended for lacquering. Just remember that primitive people with the help of this «tool» to earn their food from under the earth. The nails were important for survival, for their strength, both then and now reflects the health of the entire body. Smooth, brilliant, one-colour and with pink nails – the sign of a healthy person.

The beginning of the normal growth and formation of nail plates practically coincide with the moment of birth. Before this event, i.e. during fetal development nails grow, but extremely slowly.

For a long time about the structure of the apparatus of the nail and the process of growth, very little was known. Nails were considered as appendages of the skin, which to one extent or another, repeat the elements of its structure and carry out similar functions. In recent years much in functions nail apparatus has become famous thanks to intensive research in the field of dermatology, Mycology and nail cosmetology. First of all clarified the process of the growth and education of the nail. This has specialists of great assistance to the correct assessment of the condition of the nails of the client.

Anatomy of a nail

Layer-by-layer structure of the skin and nail apparatus are completely different. So, if the skin is composed of three main layers – the hypodermis, the dermis and the layer of epithelium in the nail device is not primarily hypodermis – the fatty tissue. Is very well developed papillary layer of derma. It forms numerous crests and grooves that are duplicated similar scallops and grooves actually nail plate. Long been known that there is a powerful circulatory network, and only recently it has been discovered that these education play an important role in the process of the growth of nails. Reticular layer of derma presented under the nails powerful collagen bundles, which are in direct contact with bone phalanx creating fixing apparatus of the nail. It is important that these bundles are created by the tension force, which largely determine the form of longitudinal arch and-bends on the final shape of the nail. It follows that the development of the ligamentous apparatus nail largely determines the shape of the nail plate. Than more strongly developed collagen bundles, the stronger will be expressed With-curves and the longitudinal arch. When nail dystrophy inevitably weakened by ligaments, and, consequently, the tension of the nail. The result could be a seal of the nail until the formation of a трамплинообразных nails and онихолизиса.

Структура ногтей в ногтевом сервисе

Immediately on the papillary layer of derma is located proliferous layer of the epithelium. The rear section of this layer forms the nail matrix, his place of permanent education. Matrix determines the genetic form nail, its thickness, structure, growth rate. Proliferous epithelium layer corresponds in the nail office of the nail bed, which lies directly nail plate. The nail plate covers the corneal layer of the skin. Unlike the skin it is actually not detected intermediate layers – шиповатый, granular and brilliant, in which consistently have held orogovenia processes. Apparently, the process of keratinization nail fully takes place not at the level of the matrix, as at the level of the nail bed – reduced design. Hence the opinion that the nail bed partly involved in the formation of the body of the nail. This fact is confirmed by the fact that, in fact, the epithelium of the nail bed is a continuation of the nail matrix. This opinion is confirmed by the facts of observation of clients who for one reason or another impaired function of the matrix, but saved the nail bed. In this case we can observe a very slow growth of the nail in thickness. Influencing various methods and germ cells of the nail bed, under certain conditions it is possible to achieve some thickening of the nail plates. It is the main trend of development of the professional cosmetic nail drugs.

Beneficial oils

Структура ногтей в ногтевом сервисеOne of the most accessible and easy to use products are oil, rich in active ingredients. Reaching namely epithelium, they stimulate and create the conditions for the renewal of the substance of the nail. Excellent results provide the means, which include avocado oil. Rich phytohormones, it prevents the appearance of age spots and premature skin aging. Vitamins A, C, E & P, contained in the avocado oil, strengthen local immunity of the skin and protect it from the adverse effects of external factors, and, in particular, from ultraviolet radiation. Due to higher content of vitamins A and C, avocado oil stimulates the body’s collagen and accelerates the process of regeneration of skin and nail. Its regular use contributes to the strengthening and growth of the nails, and prevents inflammation of the nail fold. In addition, applied to the nail cuticle, it perfectly moisturizes and softens it, that is very important for the procedure of manicure or pedicure.

Thick or thin?

So, knowing the peculiarities of microanatomy of nail machine, you can describe the process of nail growth in all its details. It should be noted immediately that all aspects of this process can be a decisive factor for the selection of cosmetic nail treatment of a particular client. Placing all the points B), the master of manicure should be aware that, first, the form and structure of nails genetically dependent. Secondly, shape, structure and growth rate, despite a genetic factor may change as a result of the impact of a huge number of external and internal influences throughout a person’s life. Thirdly, modern nail cosmetology has huge opportunities for creation of the conditions for restoring the normal function of the nails, and methods of aesthetic correction of various defects – even those in which it is impossible to restore the natural nail and its full functionality. To facilitate the understanding of the process of the growth of nails, divide it into two parts: the growth of the nail in thickness and growth of the nail in length. These two indicators are not equal, as the first place will always stand growth nail length, defined by the matrix. The thickness of the nail initially also determined by the matrix and only partly epithelium of the nail bed. You can now try to answer the question many nail-designers, why some people nails thick, and the other thin, and what was behind it.

Genetically specified thickness nail depends on the length of the matrix. The longer the matrix, the thicker the nail plate. Dystrophy and injuries matrix apparatus part of him may be excluded, temporarily or permanently, of the functions of the formation of the nail. As a result of the nail becomes thinner. In this case, the master of manicure can try to create conditions for restoration of functions of a matrix or influence with the same purpose in the nail bed. But in case of an impact on the nail bed, remember that it is only partly responsible for the generation of a nail plate, and the result may not be obvious or non-persistent.

There are often people who nails from nature thin. There is already no methods will not be effective, as short matrix genetically incorporated. Help in this case, only using artificial materials to strengthen nails. On the contrary, if a person were originally thick healthy nails, and they become thin in any period of life, it is important to find the cause of the thinning of the nail plate.

If the cause is determined correctly and the master can propose a suitable recovery method, the result will be a restoration of the original length of the matrix. But, as a rule, such recovery takes at least 9-12 months and requires both from the master, from the client a lot of patience and perseverance. In some cases thinning of the nail plate occurs due to age dystrophy, and cosmetic treatment is not very effective. However, for the partial recovery of the thickness of the nail can affect the germ cells of the nail bed.

Taking into account physiology

For cosmetic impact on nails is important to consider directly the structure of the nail plate. The process of the formation of the nail comes from the cells of the matrix. Outwardly rounded cells of the matrix consistently turn into beta – keratin – the main substance of the nail.

This type of keratin has lamellar or черепицеобразную structure. In the process of this transformation cells flattened and form a tight to each other scales. The predecessors of keratin proteins are эмидин and кератогиалин. In микрочешуйках nail they completely replaced with a beta-keratin. The final substance nail quite tight, but porous. Thanks layered and porous structure of a nail in it flow simultaneously two processes, typical for the skin: absorption and выпотевание.

Unlike the skin, these processes occur in the nails passively, since they do not contain regulatory mechanisms. Due to the high permeability of the nail these processes occur in them 100 times more intense than in the skin. Thus, only nails yield up to 12% of all skin effusion in the day. This process nails can be regulated only by the change of the lumen of the vessels of the nail bed. Nails also absorb everything that is on their surface. They actively absorb and water, which the skin almost does not absorb. Such a structure of nail plates implies a good penetration of various active ingredients to the level of росткового epithelium. This is based of various methods of treatment and recovery of the staff of the nail. Many companies are whole lines, nail care, using natural plant extracts and vitamins. Due to the high permeability of the nail plate possibly local influence of therapeutic drugs in the complex treatment of fungal diseases. The same principle is based treatment of onychomycosis anti-микотическими varnishes, are created when the maximum concentration of the active substance among scales of the nail and the nail bed.

In conclusion, we note that the machine nail is a complex of various mechanisms of growth, which are defined by the unique features of this part of the skin. The actual apparatus nail is constantly renewed structure which is able to restore itself. The exception is the matrix. Damage may cause irreversible changes just nail apparatus.

Irina Ladygina,head of the Department of professional cosmetics center of professional cosmetics «Line Style & Nails»

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